- Saad, Alia; Izadi, Kian; Ahmad Khan, Anam; Knierim, Pascal; Schneegass, Stefan; Alt, Florian; Abdelrahman, Yomna: HotFoot: Foot-Based User Identification Using Thermal Imaging. In: Proceedings of the 2023 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. Association for Computing Machinery, New York, NY, USA 2023. doi:10.1145/3544548.3580924CitationAbstractDetails
We propose a novel method for seamlessly identifying users by combining thermal and visible feet features. While it is known that users’ feet have unique characteristics, these have so far been underutilized for biometric identification, as observing those features often requires the removal of shoes and socks. As thermal cameras are becoming ubiquitous, we foresee a new form of identification, using feet features and heat traces to reconstruct the footprint even while wearing shoes or socks. We collected a dataset of users’ feet (N = 21), wearing three types of footwear (personal shoes, standard shoes, and socks) on three floor types (carpet, laminate, and linoleum). By combining visual and thermal features, an AUC between 91.1% and 98.9%, depending on floor type and shoe type can be achieved, with personal shoes on linoleum floor performing best. Our findings demonstrate the potential of thermal imaging for continuous and unobtrusive user identification.
- Abdrabou, Yasmeen; Rivu, Radiah; Ammar, Tarek; Liebers, Jonathan; Saad, Alia; Liebers, Carina; Gruenefeld, Uwe; Knierim, Pascal; Khamis, Mohamed; Mäkelä, Ville; Schneegass, Stefan; Alt, Florian: Understanding Shoulder Surfer Behavior Using Virtual Reality. In: Proceedings of the IEEE conference on Virtual Reality and 3D User Interfaces (IEEE VR). IEEE, Christchurch, New Zealand 2022. CitationAbstractDetails
We explore how attackers behave during shoulder surfing. Unfortunately, such behavior is challenging to study as it is often opportunistic and can occur wherever potential attackers can observe other people’s private screens. Therefore, we investigate shoulder surfing using virtual reality (VR). We recruited 24 participants and observed their behavior in two virtual waiting scenarios: at a bus stop and in an open office space. In both scenarios, avatars interacted with private screens displaying different content, thus providing opportunities for shoulder surfing. From the results, we derive an understanding of factors influencing shoulder surfing behavior.
- Saad, Alia; Liebers, Jonathan; Gruenefeld, Uwe; Alt, Florian; Schneegass, Stefan: Understanding Bystanders’ Tendency to Shoulder Surf Smartphones Using 360-Degree Videos in Virtual Reality. In: Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Mobile Human-Computer Interaction (MobileHCI). Association for Computing Machinery, Toulouse, France 2021. doi:10.1145/3447526.3472058CitationAbstractDetails
Shoulder surfing is an omnipresent risk for smartphone users. However, investigating these attacks in the wild is difficult because of either privacy concerns, lack of consent, or the fact that asking for consent would influence people’s behavior (e.g., they could try to avoid looking at smartphones). Thus, we propose utilizing 360-degree videos in Virtual Reality (VR), recorded in staged real-life situations on public transport. Despite differences between perceiving videos in VR and experiencing real-world situations, we believe this approach to allow novel insights on observers’ tendency to shoulder surf another person’s phone authentication and interaction to be gained. By conducting a study (N=16), we demonstrate that a better understanding of shoulder surfers’ behavior can be obtained by analyzing gaze data during video watching and comparing it to post-hoc interview responses. On average, participants looked at the phone for about 11% of the time it was visible and could remember half of the applications used.
- Liebers, Jonathan; Abdelaziz, Mark; Mecke, Lukas; Saad, Alia; Auda, Jonas; Alt, Florian; Schneegaß, Stefan: Understanding User Identification in Virtual Reality Through Behavioral Biometrics and the Effect of Body Normalization. In: Proceedings of the 40th ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI). Association for Computing Machinery, Yokohama, Japan 2021. doi:10.1145/3411764.3445528CitationAbstractDetails
Virtual Reality (VR) is becoming increasingly popular both in the entertainment and professional domains. Behavioral biometrics have recently been investigated as a means to continuously and implicitly identify users in VR. Applications in VR can specifically benefit from this, for example, to adapt virtual environments and user interfaces as well as to authenticate users. In this work, we conduct a lab study (N = 16) to explore how accurately users can be identified during two task-driven scenarios based on their spatial movement. We show that an identification accuracy of up to 90% is possible across sessions recorded on different days. Moreover, we investigate the role of users’ physiology in behavioral biometrics by virtually altering and normalizing their body proportions. We find that body normalization in general increases the identification rate, in some cases by up to 38%; hence, it improves the performance of identification systems.
- Saad, Alia; Elkafrawy, Dina Hisham; Abdennadher, Slim; Schneegass, Stefan: Are They Actually Looking? Identifying Smartphones Shoulder Surfing Through Gaze Estimation. In: ETRA. ACM, Stuttgart, Germany 2020. doi:10.1145/3379157.3391422CitationDetails
- Saad, Alia; Wittig, Nick; Grünefeld, Uwe; Schneegass, Stefan: A Systematic Analysis of External Factors Affecting Gait Identification. . CitationAbstractDetails